Throughout the history of philosophy, many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed. But while philosophers have been busy trying to determine whether or not God exists, they have often neglected to ask: 'What difference would - or does - God's existence make to the overall value of the world?' This question is not about the putative advantages or disadvantages of some individual or society having religious beliefs or engaging in religious practices. It is, instead, a question about the axiological consequences of theism. This research project will systematically investigate various answers that might be given to this profoundly important question. This project will support several Templeton Research Fellowships: two for the 2013-2014 academic year and at least one for the 2014-2015 academic year. The purpose of these fellowships is to provide a year-long period of uninterrupted research time for outstanding philosophers to pursue ground-breaking research on any aspect(s) of this project. This grant will also support two public events and one research workshop which will explore various answers to this question. This project will result in an increased awareness of, and research into, the axiological effect that God's existence would - or does - have on the world and its inhabitants.