CSIS proposes to examine barriers affecting GM crop adoption in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The project will provide new insights and recommendations for U.S. efforts to assist African countries with GM technology adoption, and promote a dialogue among African stakeholders, including increased outreach to rural areas, to enhance the quality of decision-making on GM technology. We do not intend to explore the question of whether GM technology is appropriate, but to bring updated, realistic assessments of the key barriers to GM adoption, including regulatory challenges; public communication on GM technology within the African context; and the need for increased scientific capacity. Through the use of field studies, an online forum, a conference, and a final report, we plan to significantly improve understanding of some of the key barriers to the acceptance of GM crops in Africa, identify ways in which U.S. policy can help African countries move forward in the areas that are most important in their national settings, and increase dialogue among African governments and the scientific community to help inform decisions about GM technology. This project will fill a void in previous research by connecting various stakeholders and filling an information gap about how African governments reach decisions on GM technology, using case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.