Our scientific story of human origins is often told as one in which people lack the very elements which we believe define humanity – emotional responses to each other. It is perhaps thus not surprising that many imagine that an emotionless competition drove human evolutionary success, and all too often use this concept to justify pursuing self-interest at the expense of others. This project addresses this issue by asking the 'Big Question' of how significant moral emotions were to human evolutionary success. We know that our distant ancestors were courageous on behalf on others, showed self-control, kindness and compassion, and used tolerance and gratitude to forge links with people they differed from and rarely met, however evidence for these behaviors is rarely discussed or publicized. In this project archaeological evidence relating to five key emotions (courage, self-control, kindness, gratitude and tolerance) will be brought together, analysed and interpreted leading to academic papers and an accessible online volume with associated material which reaches out to both an academic and a public audience. This same material will also be used to create a web site which presents an alternative narrative and evidence intended for adolescents and young people. The project aims to influence the balance of academic and public attention, which currently focuses on interpretations of cruelty and violence in the distant past, towards a fuller appreciation of far greater record for collaboration and altruism, as well as to to help provide a sense of validation and inspiration from the deep past for those who are struggling to find their path through difficult emotions. The core theme of the project is Science and the Big Questions - Life Sciences, with a secondary relevance to Character Virtue Development.