This research project fills a significant gap in knowledge by offering an empirically grounded study of farmer attitudes and intentions to adopt GM crops in Uganda. The overarching goal is to design and implement a new methodological program to provide rigorous and representative data on farmer attitudes toward GM technology prior to its commercial release, thus providing reliable estimates of future adoption rates. The innovative approach employed in this project combines quantitative and qualitative methods to determine whether GM versions of matooke banana are a good fit with the environmental, political and cultural contexts of the intended adopters, smallholder farmers. One hundred and fifty farmers will engage in participatory ranking exercises designed to assess their perceptions of the benefits and risks associated with GM technology. Groups of farmers will then participate in gender-specific focus groups to offer further insights into the meaning of quantitative results. Research outputs and outcomes will result in significant enduring impacts for academic, policy, community, and public audiences. Academic: Conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications will contribute to a novel research paradigm that emphasizes farmer-centered agricultural decision-making. Policy change: A two-day workshop bringing together farmers, research scientists, policy officials, MPs and civil society will be convened in Kampala. This dialogue will be the starting point for the creation of agricultural policies and experimental programs that address farmers’ perceived opportunities, risks, and concerns. Community knowledge: Four community meetings with farmers, District-level officials, and extension workers will educate farmers and local leaders on the advantages and limitations of GM crops within their particular climate and context. This knowledge will help farmers and local decision-makers make informed choices around these new technological possibilities. Public outreach: A coordinated media campaign will transform the conversation around GM’s potential in Uganda to one that recognizes the vital role played by farmer decision-making.