A critical mass has accumulated, consisting of useful theory about ethics and values (much of it in philosophy), and empirical methods and resources appropriate to test these theories (mainly from psychology). Therefore, a strategic opportunity exists to make significant progress on basic research on theory-based measurement in this domain. This project investigates how optimally to assess virtues and the mindset conducive to virtuous action, tested against standards of predictive and strong construct validity, as well as cross-cultural generalizability. A central, though not exclusive, focus is on ethical virtues (honesty, gratitude, generosity, forgiveness, reliability). Virtues are assessed preferentially by combining ratings of a single person coming from multiple well-acquainted informants, with comparison to overt and indirect methods involving self-report. To assess mindset, methods include coding of personal value-hierarchies in terms of empirically and theoretically derived models of value rank, as well as measures of compassion and conscience. Outcome criteria include innovative experimental tasks and important outcomes forecast over time. The comparative validity of numerous measures will be investigated in two large longitudinal American samples. Replication tests will be conducted in international samples from other continents so as to ensure cross-cultural generalizability. Outputs and outcomes will be not only scientific-article contributions, centered on rigorous studies of comparative validity in prediction of individuals’ ‘functioning for good,’ but also measures of virtues (which might inform character checklists for letter-of-reference contexts), optimal methods for coding individual values data, and likely a teachable model for ways of thinking that conduce to virtues. The research may generate important new knowledge about virtues, and also the values-mindset underlying them, applicable across national and cultural boundaries.